英文合同中常见的易混淆的用语表达(下) 12、关于转让的表达 「例」 公司的任何一方未经董事会一致通过及中国主管审批部门的批准,不得向第三方转让、抵押、出售或以其他方式处理其全部或部分投资。若一方要转让股份,必须遵守以下规定 句中的转让一词多数
  「例」  公司的任何一方未经董事会一致通过及中国主管审批部门的批准,不得向第三方转让、抵押、出售或以其他方式处理其全部或部分投资。若一方要转让股份,必须遵守以下规定……
  句中的“转让”一词多数译者选用transfer.但我们认为用assign更正式,assign/assignment是法律英语,表示to transfer property .rights to sb in accordance with laws;而transfer/transference仅表示to hand over the possession of property ,etc.,因此,本段可译为:
13、关于“许可,允许”(allaw, grant)的表达
 Neither party of the Joint Venture may assign ,pledge ,sell or otherwise dispose of all or part of its investment subscribed to a third party without the unanimous approval of the Board of Directors and consent by the appropriate Cinese Government Approving Departments. In case that assignment is effected by one party ,the following stipulations must be observed.。。
  「例」  如果许可方允许任何第三方在任何地方使用本专利或相应的专利,及有关特许产品的生产、使用和销售的许可证,而且其条件比本协议规定的条件更优惠,许可方应立即以书面形式将这些优惠许可的细节通知被许可方,被许可方有接受相同优惠条件的选择权。
  原译文:  If the Licensor allows any other license under the Patent or their other responding patents to any third party in connection with the manufacture ,Use and sale Of the Licensed Products in any place under such conditions as are more favorable to a licensee than those provided herein, the licensor shall promptly inform the Licensee in written form of the details 0f such other license and the licensee has the choice to adopt equally favorable conditions.
  译文中的allow(允许,许可)不如用grant正式。grant在国际商务合同,尤其在许可证合同中表示许可方to allow the licensee to…,而allow仅表示to say that someone can do sth。
  「例」  (1) Arbitration of all questions in dispute under this contract shall be al the choice Of either party and shall be in accordance with the International Arbitration Rules Of American Arbitration Association.
  (2) Our products are manufactured from the choice grades of material and will satisfy you in every respect.
由于以上两句中的choice的词性不同,在词义的确定上也有所不同。第一句中的choice是名词,意思为“选择”(act of choosing between two or more possibilities);第二句中的choice是形容词,意思为“优质的”(of very good quality)。
  「例」  (1) The prices quoted include a progressive commission ,to be calculated on FOB basis ,o f 2%for a single order for 10 dozen or up 3%for 30 dozen or up.
  (2) Party B is commissioned by the manufacturers to buy steel plates and this contract shall supersede all previous commitments.
以上两句中的commission,由于词性不同,词义具有很大的区别。前一句中的commission在合同中经常以名词形式出现,意思为“佣金”;后一句中的commission是动词,其意思为“委托”或“代理”。再如:The Contractor shall be responsible for and shall carry out all maintenance work during commissioning period (在试运行期问,承包方应负责进行一切维修工作)。
  「例」  (1) The time limit for inspection and claim is 60 days after discharge Of the cargo at the port Of destination.
  (2) Party B agrees that the expiration of this license shall not discharge party B from its obligation.
  (3) Routine duties of the Joint Venture Company are lo be discharged by the general manager appointed by the Board of Directors.
以上三句中都含有discharge,在不同的合同条款中,其词义也有很大不同。第一句中的discharge是名词(也可作动词)。词义为:“卸货”(unloading cargo from a ship),经常出现在国际货物买卖合同中;第二句中的discharge是动词,意思为“免除”(releasing one party from the terms of a contract);第三句中的discharge也是动词,意思为“履行”(carrying out one's duty)。 discharge在用作名词时,还可以表示“一批发运的货物”,如:Party B shall check the quality of each dispatch in accordance with the Contract(乙方应按合同规定检查每批发出的货物的质量)。
  「例」  The Contractor's Site Representative shall be present at the site throughout normal working hours except when on leave sick, or absent for reasons connected with the proper performance of the Contract.
  The Contractor shall at all time keep the premises free from accumulation of waste materials or rubbish caused by the Works and at the completion of the Works shall remove all remaining materials from and about the premises and shall leave the Site and Plant safe, clean and ready for Use.
  以上例句中的两个条款中均含有leave一词,其中第一款中的leave是名词,意思为:“假期”(time absent from duty or work);第二款中的leave是动词,意思为:“保持”(to remain in a certain condition)。
  「例」  (1) If the vessel had arrived at the loading port within the Confirmed Dates. the loading operation could be carried out now.
  句中的operation是单数形式,一般表示“操作,作业”或“经营”。又如:These first stockholders shall organize and elect a Board of Directors and thereafter, such Board of Directors shall control the operation of the new corporation(应由首批股东组织选出董事会,然后,由这一董事会控制这家公司的经营)。
  (2) We welcome any suggestions you may offer for our business operations.
  「例」  (1)The invoice shall be subject to the usual trade discounts allowed by the Consignor.
  发票须按照发货人所给予的通常批发折扣开立。句中的discount意思为“折扣”(amount of money taken off the cost of sth),是商业贸易中常用的词汇。对某一价格打折扣,可接用of或on.例如:We are prepared to grant you a discount of 5%on the price(我方准备给予你方5%的价格折扣)。
  (2)The Buyer shall lodge a 90-day note in Bank of China, Taiyuan Branch for discount.
  句中的discount意思为“贴现”(the amount of money deducted from the face value of a note),是银行业务中常用的词汇。
  「例」  (1) Our end-users consider the Voltmeter to be unfit from application and claim that the instrument be replaced by you with a sound one.
  (2) The board of directors may authorize any agent or agents to enter into any Contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation.
  该句中的instrument在商业上多表示“正式的单据或文件”(formal document)。又如:The attorney is authorized to make, sign and deliver any other instrument, whether sealed or unsealed(律师有权撰写、签署和发送任何其他密封或开封的文件)。
  (3) A party to an instrument may authorize an agent to endorse the instrument but must specify the principal-agent relationship On the instrument.
该句中instrument在结算业务中表示票据的总称。比如:《中华人民共和国票据法》规定“本法所称的票据,是指汇票,本票和支票”,英译为:The term “negotiable instrument ”as used in this law denotes “bill of exchange”, “promissory note'‘ and ”Cheque".
20、关于freight 的用法
  「例」  (1) The Ocean freight and transfer charges from the interior points to the port of shipment shall be paid by Buyer.
  该句中的freight在国际贸易中常指“运费” (money charged for carrying goods)。
  (2)This freight must be carefully handled when loading.
该句中的freight在国内运输中一般指“货物”(cargo or goods which are carried by land or sea or air),不指“运费”。
  「例」  he premium rates vary with differed interests insured and with different destinations. routes and carrying periods of insurance.
  (2)If the Buyer fails to pay any amount when due, the Buyer shall be liable to pay to the Seller overdue interest on such unpaid amount from the due date until the actual date of payment at the rate of five percent per annum. Such overdue interest shall be paid upon demand of the Seller.
  (3)The articles of our immediate interest are your “CHUNHUI'‘ Brand Agricultural Washing Machines.
22、关于case 的用法
  「例」  (1)In case of any request by either party, the party having possession of the desired records may deliver the appropriate records to the requesting party.
  句中含有case的介词短语in case of,其含义为“假使,如果”,引出状语。
  (2)The price difference should in no case be as big as USD25 per metric ton.
  句中含有case的介词短语in no case,意思为“决不”,具有副词性质,用作状语。
  (3)In case of an order for more than 6000 pieces, Party B allows a special discount Of 6 per cent.
该句中的in the case of与第一句的in case of只有一个定冠词之别,但其意思却有很大区别,前者意思为“至于,就……来说”,而后者的意思是“假如”。
23、关于allowance 的用法
  「例」  (1)Upon the arrival 0f the goods at the place of delivery the Buyers claim an allowance 0f USD 350 On account Of inferior quality.
  (2) Both Party A and Party B shall make a liberal allowance for such unforeseen circumstances arising during transit.
  句中的allowance在make allowance for结构中表示:在做某种决定时,“考虑到某事物”(to consider sth when making a decision)。
  「例」  The part of the contract price shall be paid in USD by way of an irrevocable Letter of Credit against presentation by Contractor to the negotiable bank.
  句中的negotiable作为形容词在修饰bank时,译成“议付”。形容词negotiable就其本身而言意思为:“可谈判的”,但是在修饰不同的名词时其含义也就不同。试比较:negotiable amount(可议付的金额),negotiable bill of lading(可过户证券),negotiable certificate of deposit(流通存单)等。
24、关于infavour , in one’s favour 的用法
  「例」  (1) The Party B shall request his bankers to open an Irrevocable letter of credit in Party A's favour upon receipt of Party A's Confirmation of this order.
  句中的短语in one's favour意思为“以……为受益人”。
  (2)Our goods that we offer you are much in favour on the European Continent.
该句中的in favour与上句的in one's favour只相差一个名词所有格形式或形容词性物主代词,但意义却大不相同。in favour在本句中的意思是“受赏识,受好评”。
25、关于ensure , insure 的用法
  「例」  (1) The Foreign Party shall furnish to the Joint Venture Company all the technical data necessary to ensure the effective operation of the machinery.
  (2) The Seller have insured the goods FPA and against War Risk at the rate of 0.5%for the sum of USD 36,000 with the Insurance company.
  该句中的insure表示to make a contract that promises to pay sb an amount of money in case of accident,injury,death or damage or loss of sth.
  「例」  (1) The Contract Price set forth in this Contract shall not include any withholding tariff and any charges imposed on the contractor by the government in New Zealand.
  该译文中的“税金”应改为“关税”。tariff在表示“税”时,主要用于“关税”,即:a schedule or system of duties imposed by a government on goods imported or exported at the rate of duty imposed in tariff.
  (2) The China Corporation shall bear all relevant taxes and levies imposed upon the personnel by the Chinese Government, whereas the Employer shall bear the same imposed upon the personnel by the Government of the Project-host Country.
  该句中出现了两个有关“税金”的单词,即taxes and levies.其中tax在表示“税”时,主要强调:money taken compulsorily by the government or by an official body to pay for government services; levy作为名词,主要表示一种“征税”的行为,即:money which is demanded and collected by the government or by an agency or by an official body.因此,句中的taxes and levies合在一起可理解为:(中国政府所征收的)“一切税金”。
  (3)The prices quoted above do not include any taxes. duties, impost and any other charges of any kind which may be levied in China.
  该句中除taxes外,还出现两个表示“税”的单词,即duty 和impost.其中duty主要强调the tax imposed by a government on merchandise imported from another country,可理解为“关税”。但duty在表示“关税”时与tariff是有本质区别的,前者主要表示tax to be paid for importing,而后者除表示tax to be paid for importing外,还可以表示tax to be paid for exporting,所以,在翻译duty时,一般应结合上下文写成:“在某国内所征收的关税”;句中出现的另一个表示“税”的单词是impost,这个词纯粹表示“进口税”,但不一定是通过海关所征的税。
  27、关于pledge, mortgage 的用法
  The Party B shall deliver his certificate of fixed deposits of USD 500, 000 to the Party A for possession and take the said fixed deposits as mortgage Of the obligatory right.
  该句是一则借款合同中的担保条款。乙方将存款移交给甲方作为担保,属于担保方式中的“质押”,而且是一种“权利质押”。显然,译文中用mortgage表示“质押”是不能完全达意的。mortgage尽管也表示用财产担保,但这种担保方式是以不转移财产的占有向债权人担保;本款中的担保是以转移财产的占有向债权人作为担保,属于transfer of objects or documents to Creditor as security for a loan.因此,“质押”选用pledge 较妥,mortgage属于“抵押”的范畴。