PART 1 - GENERAL第一部分 概要 1.01 DESCRIPTION 工程描述 A. Extent of Work: The extent of earthwork includes but is not limited to site 工程范围：土方工程范围包括，但不局限于场地清理， clearance, excavation and backfilling of trenches and piPART 1 - GENERAL第一部分 概要
1.01 DESCRIPTION 工程描述
A. Extent of Work: The extent of earthwork includes but is not limited to site
clearance, excavation and backfilling of trenches and pits for structures, trenches for pipes, conduits, channels, walls, etc., excavation and backfilling for
walkways and slabs, preparation of subgrade, provision of borrow pit fill
materials and filling and compacting where required, backfilling and compacting
satisfactory material on site and disposing of surplus and unsatisfactory materials
to approved dumping areas all as directed. The extent of works specified under
this section shall also include antitermite treatment and control Works.
1.02 QUALITY ASSURANCE 质量保证
A. Codes and Standards: Perform work in compliance with applicable requirements of safety codes and regulations.
B. Furnish samples and perform all tests and quality control required for the proper execution of the work, as stipulated in - Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes (All Parts), and as required by the Engineer.
根据BS 1377中的规定- 针对土木工程（所有条款）的土工试验方法，以及工程师的要求，提供样本，以及进行正确施工作业所要求的工程质量控制和实验。
C. The Contractor shall conduct subsurface investigation at locations agreed with Engineer prior to commencement of the work. The Contractor shall submit for approval his proposed method of investigation. Upon completion of the work, the Contractor shall submit a Geotechnical Investigation Report containing factual data and findings during the investigation, and geotechnical interpretations and recommendations, including but not limited to:
1. Factual data containing the following information: 真实资料应包含以下内容：
a) A statement on the purpose and rationale of the investigation.
b) A description of the work carried out, including reference to specifications and standards adopted and any deviations from them.
c) Exploratory bore hole logs.钻孔记录
d) In situ test records.原位测试记录
e) Laboratory test results.试验室测试结果
f) Plan with locations of exploratory holes.探孔平面布置图
2. The interpretive data shall include, but is not limited to the following information.
a) General geology.地质概况
b) Subsurface conditions by area and soil profiles.区域地下状况和土壤剖面
c) Groundwater condition.地下水情况
d) Earthwork recommendations for:土方工程建议：
- Excavation and backfilling土方开挖和回填
Including but not limited to, fill and cut slopes, compaction recommendation, water control including effects of artesian pressures if any, modulii of subgrade reaction, CBR values, fill settlement etc.
e) Foundation recommendation for:对基础的建议为：
- Deep foundations (piling)深基础（桩基）
- Shallow foundation浅基础
Including, but not limited to, design parameters (bearing capacities), types, recommended levels, anticipated settlements, protection, etc.
D. Tests for Proposed Soil Materials: 对拟采用土料试验
1. Test soil materials proposed for use in the work and promptly submit test report results to the Engineer for approval.
2. Provide optimum moisture-maximum density of relative density test data as appropriate for each type of soil encountered in subgrade, fills and backfills. Determine maximum and relative densities in accordance with BS 1377.
3. Determine the physical and mechanical properties and suitability of subgrade materials, fills and backfills.
4. Test for Proposed Materials: Perform and report to the Engineer the following sampling and testing for the proposed subgrade materials, fills and backfills for each type of fill material all in accordance with BS 1377:
a. Dry and Wet Preparation of Soil Samples for Particles-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants
b. Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils 土的液限，朔限和朔限指数
c. Particle Size Distribution and the Amount of Material Finer than the No. 200 Sieve in Soils
d. Tests for In-Situ Density of Soil 土的原位密实度测试
e. Moisture-Density Relations ofSoils Using 4.50 kg Rammer 457mm Drop. Method D 使用4.50 kg击实锤，457mm落距，方法D，测试土的密与湿度的关系
f. Test for California Bearing Ratio 加利福尼亚承载比试验
g. Test for Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils 无粘性土相对密实度测试
h. Test for Density of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method
5. Minimum Test Required: The above tests shall be carried out for each type of borrow pit fill material but not less than 3 each for every layer of borrow pit fill materials.
E. Anti-termite Treatment: Pre-constructional anti-termite treatment of soil along the perimeter of the building and soil faces in contact with the building including treating backfill with anti-termite materials as required shall be undertaken by an approved specialised Sub-contractor in accordance with the following main requirements and guidelines:
1. The Contractor shall submit full details of the specialised Sub-contractor whom he proposes to use for the approval of the Engineer.
2. The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer detailing the most appropriate method along with the rate of application for the existing site conditions and taking into consideration the configuration and lay of the building, for the approval of the Engineer before commencing any work. The contractor shall also furnish full details of the checmicals he proposes to use along with all necessary documental evidence as required for compliance with the regulations, local authorities requirements and proven track record. The most appropriate method to be used shall be decided at the time of construction after considering all aspects.
3. However any approval accorded by the engineer shall not relieve the Contractor/Sub-Contractor of any responsibilities and contractual obligations.
4. The treatment shall guarantee that the building will remain free from any termite activities for a minimum duration of 10 years after the completion of the Works. The specialised Sub-contractor shall give an undertaking that in the case of infestation of the said structure by any termite activities, he shall carry out such treatment(s) as may be necessary to render the structure free from termite infestation without any extra cost to the Employer, and till the end of the ten years period stated above.
1.03 JOB CONDITIONS 施工条件
A. Site information: Subsurface investigation including boring, sampling, testing and foundation recommendation shall be carried out by the Contractor as specified in 1.02 C herein above.
B. Use of Explosives: The use of explosives for the Work will not be permitted, nor shall the Contractor import any explosives into UAE in connection with the work under this Contract.
C. Protection of Persons and Property: 人身及财产的保护
1. Barricade open excavations made as a part of earthwork operations and post with warning lights. Operate warning lights during hours from dusk to dawn each day and as otherwise required.
2. Protect structures, utilities, pavements, and other facilities from damage caused by settlement, lateral movements, undermining, washout, and other hazards created by earthwork operations.
3. Take precautions and provide necessary bracing and shoring to guard against movement or settlement of existing improvements or new construction. In carrying out excavation and other works close to existing structures and to prevent subsidence of the foundation of such structures, the Contractor shall provide and shall be responsible for the strength and adequacy of the necessary sheeting, bracing and shoring as required in order that the excavation, backfilling and any other work can be safely performed. The Contractor shall include in his rates for all additional temporary works that may be required to prevent any damage to such structures.
PART 2 - PRODUCTS 产品
2.01 DEFINITIONS 定义
A. Satisfactory Soil Materials: Satisfactory soil materials for backfill and fill are defined and shall comply with those detailed in. BS 1377
合格的土方料; 在BS 1377中定义了合格的填方料和回填方料，并应符合在BS 1377中所详述内容。
B. Unsatisfactory Soil Materials: Unsatisfactory soil materials for backfill and fill and described in BS 1377, unless otherwise acceptable to the Engineer.
C. Cohesionless Soil Materials: Cohesionless soil materials include gravels, sand-gravel mixtures, sands and gravelly-sands.
D. Cohesive Soil Materials: 粘性土
1. Cohesive soil materials include clayey and silty gravels, sand-clay mixtures, gravel-silt mixtures, clayey and silty sands, sand-silt mixtures, clays, silts, and every fine sands.
2. Cohesive soil materials are defined as those having a plasticity index exceeding 11 and/or having amount passing U.S. sieve No. 200 exceeding 36%.
3. Soil material exhibiting cohesiveness and meeting the requirements of satisfactory soils shall be considered by the Engineer satisfactory soil material.
2.02 SOIL MATERIALS 土料
A. Backfill and Fill Materials: 回填料及填料
1. General: Provide satisfactory soil materials for backfill and fill, free of rock or gravel larger than 50 mm in any dimension, and free of clay, debris, waste, vegetable and other deleterious matter. Use excavated or borrow material that has been sampled, tested and approved by the Engineer as satisfactory soil material.
2. Borrow: Borrow shall consist of the excavation of material from borrow pits selected by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. He shall pay all royalties and bear all expense of developing the sources and of handling, hauling and placing the material at no additional cost to the Employer.
B. Paved Areas: Provide satisfactory soil materials, as defined, to have a soaked CBR of not less than 15% as determined by BS 1377.
1. Soil group classification A-3 shall not be used for top 200 mm of subgrade.
2.03 ANTI-TERMITE TREATMENT MATERIALS防白蚁处理材料
Materials incorporated in the anti-termite treatment and control shall be included by the Contractor in his submittal. Full details of the chemicals he proposes to use along with all necessary documental evidence as required for compliance with the regulations, local authorities requirements and proven track record, shall also be submitted for the approval of the Engineer.
PART 3 - EXECUTION 开挖
3.01 INSPECTION 检查
A. The Contractor shall examine the substrates and the conditions under which the earthwork shall be performed and correct any unsatisfactory conditions. Do not proceed with the work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in a manner acceptable to the Engineer.
3.02 SITE CLEARANCE 场地清理
A. Top Soil Removal: 表土清理
1. Unsuitable top soil is defined as friable clay loam surface soil or other encrusted or objectionable surface soil found in depth of not less than 600mm.
2. Strip unsuitable top soil to a minimum 100 mm depths in fill areas, and in such manner so as to prevent intermingling with the underlying sub-soil. Stripping of top soil shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.
B. Disposal of Waste Material: Transport waste materials, unsuitable materials, topsoil materials, trash and debris to approved dumping areas.
3.03 EXCAVATION 开挖
A. General: Excavation consists of the removal of all materials encountered when establishing the required grade elevations, setting aside satisfactory soil material for reuse in backfilling and filling in trenches, around structures and walkways and disposal of unsatisfactory and excess materials.
B. Unauthorized Excavation: 未经授权的开挖
1. Unauthorized excavation consists of removal of materials beyond indicated subgrade elevations or side dimensions without the specific direction of the Engineer. Replace unauthorized excavation as herein specified.
2. Under structures fill the unauthorized excavation with plain concrete, 14.0 MPa minimum compressive strength, to the required grade. Backfill unauthorized excavation with satisfactory soil material only when acceptable to the Engineer. Compaction of such backfill material shall be to its full depth and to not less than 97% of maximum dry density or 77% relative density as applicable.
在结构之下用不小于14.0 MPa抗压强度的素混凝土填回的非授权挖方部分，至要求的基底，仅仅在工程师接受的情况下，才可以用合格土料回填非授权挖方段。对这种回填土整个厚度范围内的土进行夯实，视具体情况，其最大干密度不小于97% ，相对密实度不小于77%
3. Elsewhere, backfill and compact unauthorized excavations as specified for authorized excavations of the same classification unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.
C. Additional Excavation: When excavation has reached required subgrade elevations, notify the Engineer for the inspection of conditions.
1. If unsuitable bearing materials are encountered at the required grade elevations carry excavations deeper and replace the excavated material to the depth as directed by the Engineer and as follows:
a. Under paved areas use satisfactory fill materials compacted as specified.
b. Under foundations of structures use plain concrete filling of 14.0 MPa minimum compressive strength.
D. Classification of Excavations: All excavations shall be done on an unclassified basis. No consideration will be given to the nature of the materials, including that of rock.
E. Stability of Excavation: 挖方的稳定性
1. Unless otherwise required, slope the sides of excavation to the angle of repose of the material excavated, otherwise shore and brace where sloping is not possible either because of space restrictions or stability of material excavated.
2. Maintain sides and slopes of excavations in a safe condition until completion of backfilling.
3. Take precautions to prevent slides or cave-ins in excavation. 预防挖坑滑坡或塌顶
F. Shoring and Bracing: 支撑
1. The Contractor shall furnish, put in place and maintain such sheeting, bracing, etc. as may be necessary to support the sides of the excavation and to prevent any movement of earth which could in any way diminish the width of the excavation to less than that necessary for proper construction, or could otherwise injure or delay the work, or endanger adjacent services or structures. If the Engineer is of the opinion that at any point sufficient or proper supports have not been provided, he may order additional supports put in at the expense of the Contractor.
2. Wherever possible, sheeting and bracing, shall be driven ahead of excavation to avoid loss of material from behind the sheeting; care shall be taken to avoid trimming behind the face along which the sheeting shall be driven. Care shall be taken to prevent voids outside of the sheeting, but if voids occur such voids shall be filled and compacted with approved material.
3. Sheeting and bracing shall be carefully removed in such a manner as not to endanger the construction or other structures. All voids left or caused by the withdrawal of sheeting shall be back-filled immediately with approved material and compacted by ramming with tools especially adapted for that purpose or by other means as may be directed. Sheeting and bracing for pipe trenches shall be designed in such a manner as to permit gradual withdrawal during the placing of pipe embedment or concrete or voids are left between the pipe encasement or embedment and the sides of the trenches.
4. The Contractor shall, subject to approval of the Engineer, leave in place any sheeting, bracing etc., which is required or necessary to be left in place for the purpose of preventing injury to structures of property.
5. The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage to the Works and for any injury to persons or property caused by or arising out of the removal of the sheeting and bracing. The Engineer's permission or approval to the withdrawal of such sheeting and bracing shall not relieve the Contractor from this responsibility.
G. Excavation for Structures:结构挖方
1. Conform to the elevations and dimensions shown on the drawings, within a tolerance of plus or minus 25 mm and extending a sufficient distance from foundations to permit placing and removal of concrete formwork, installation of services, and for other construction required, and for inspection.
2. In excavating for foundations, and underground structures, take care not to disturb the bottom of the excavation. Excavate by hand to final grade and elevation. Trim and compact bottoms to the required lines and grade to leave a solid base to receive structure.
3. Where rock is encountered under concrete footings, and the like, it may be necessary, depending on the condition of such rock, to excavate and remove any weathered rock to ensure that footings are founded on sound rock. Engineer shall direct on site, as necessary.
H. Excavation for Trenches for Piping: 管沟开挖
1. Excavate trenches to the uniform width required for the particular item to be installed sufficiently wide to provide ample working room. Maintain indicated maximum widths for pipe trenches at least 300 mm above crown of pipe.
2. Excavate trenches to the depth indicated or required. Carry the depth of trenches for piping to establish the indicated flow lines and invert elevations. Excavate to additional depth as required for pipe bedding.
3. Where rock is encountered, the excavation shall be carried out 150mm below the indicated or required elevation and backfill and compact with satisfactory soil material.
4. Grade bottoms of trenches as indicated. Notch under pipe bells to provide solid bearing along the entire barrel of the pipe.
5. Do not backfill trenches until tests and inspection have been made and backfilling authorized by the Engineer. Use care in backfilling to avoid damage to structures and/or displacement of pipe systems.
I. Excavation in Restricted Areas: In conformity with the drawings, or as necessitated by site conditions or as directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall carry out excavations in restricted areas or close to existing structures and utilities. Such excavation shall, in general, be carried out by hand in order to safeguard such structures and utilities from any damage whatsoever. The Contractor shall make good at his own expense any damage caused by him to such existing structures and utilities.
J. Walkway Subgrade in Areas of Cut: 挖方区人行道基底
1. When excavation has reached the required walkway subgrade elevations and the Contractor ensured the suitability of the subgrade material as stated in "Additional Excavation" hereinbefore, the top 400mm of such subgrade shall be completed as follows:
a. Moisten or aerate subgrade material to provide the optimum moisture content of the available soil classified before, and compact to the required percentage of maximum dry density or relative density for each area classification as defined in "Compaction" Paragraph herein.
K. Material Storage: 材料存放
1. Stockpile excavated satisfactory soil material in approved locations, until required for backfill or fill. Place, grade and shape stockpiles for proper drainage.
2. Locate and retain materials required in the work a sufficient distance from the edge of excavations, even though such excavations may be sheeted and braced, to prevent such material falling or sliding into the excavations and to prevent cave-ins.
3. Dispose of excess and unsatisfactory soil material and waste materials, trash and debris, as specified hereinafter.
3.04 BACKFILL AND FILL 回填和填方
1. Backfill consists of the placement of specified backfill material, in layers, over the ground surface to the required elevations, for each area classification listed below.
2. Fill consists of the placement of specified fill materials, in layers, over the ground surface to the required elevations, for each area classification listed below.
B. Backfill and Fill Materials: 回填料和填料
1. Provide satisfactory soil materials for backfill and fill, free clay, rock or gravel larger than 50 mm in any dimension, debris, waste, vegetable matter, and other deleterious matter.
2. In any fills and backfills, use excavated or borrow material that has been sampled, tested and approved.
C. Prior to backfill Placement: Backfill excavations as promptly as the work permits, but not until completion of the following:
1. Approval by the Engineer of construction below finish grade including, where applicable, damproofing.
2. Inspection, testing, approval and recording locations of underground utilities.
3. Removal of concrete formwork. 拆除混凝土模板
4. Removal of shoring and bracing, and backfilling of voids with satisfactory materials. Cut off temporary sheet piling driven below bottom of structures and remove in a manner to prevent settlement of the structures or utilities, or leave in place if required.
5. Removal of trash and debris. 清除垃圾和碎渣
6. Permanent or temporary horizontal bracing is in place on horizontally supported walls.
D. Preparation of Surfaces to Receive Backfill and Fill: 回填和填土前的地表处理
1. General: Remove vegetation, debris, unsatisfactory soil materials, obstructions and deleterious materials from ground surface or excavation bottom, prior to placement of backfills and fills.
2. Under walkways (In Fill): When the existing ground surface has a density less than that required for the particular area classification, replace unsatisfactory material, if any, break-up the ground surface, pulverise, moisture-condition to the optimum moisture content, and compact to the required depth and percentage of maximum density as specified in Paragraph 3.05 "Compaction" herein for walkways.
E. Placement: 填土
1. Place backfill and fill materials in layers not more than 200 mm compacted thickness. Before compaction, moisten or aerate each layer as necessary to provide the optimum moisture content of the soil material. Compact each layer to the required percentage of maximum density. Do not place backfill or fill material on surfaces that contain excessive moisture preventing specified degree of compaction.
2. Around Structures: Place backfill and fill material evenly adjacent to structure, to the required elevations. Take care to prevent wedging action of the backfill against structures by placing the material uniformly around the structure to approximately the same elevation in each lift.
3. Trenches: Provide satisfactory soil containing no rocks or stone greater than 50 mm in size and free of other deleterious material. Pipe embedment material is specified in the pipe utilities specification sections.
3.05 COMPACTION 夯实
A. General: Control soil compaction during construction, providing the minimum percentage of density specified for each area classification listed below.
B. Percentages of Density Requirements and Area Classifications: Compact soil for each area classification to the percentages for maximum dry densities and relative densities indicated in Table 3.05/A herein.
C. Moisture Control: 湿度控制：
1. Where the subgrade or layer of soil material must be moisture-conditioned before compaction, uniformly apply water to the surface of subgrade or layer of soil material. Apply water in a manner to prevent free water appearing on the surface during compaction operations.
2. Remove and replace, or scarify and air dry, soil material that is too wet to permit compaction to specified density.
3. Soil material that has been removed because it is too wet to permit compaction may be stockpiled or spread in approved locations and permitted to dry. Assist drying by harrowing or pulverizing, until the moisture content is reduced to a satisfactory value as determined by moisture-density relation tests.
4. Moisture in compacted fill or backfill material shall be maintained within 2% above or below the optimum moisture content as determined by BS 1377.
夯实后的填土或回填土中的含水量应保持在BS 1377中所确定的 最佳含水量2%上下
COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS 压实要求
AREA CLASSIFICATION COHESIONLESS SOIL COHESIVE SOIL
BS 1377 Relative Density BS 1377 Degree of
区域分类 非粘性土 BS 1377 粘性土
相对密实度 BS 1377 压实度
Under foundations and slabs 77% 97%
on grade of buildings
基础底部和建筑地面楼板下部Trenches and Walkways
地沟和人行道a- Top 400 mm of subgrade
地基面层 400 mm 75% 95%
b- Each layer more than 400 mm below subgrade 70% 90%
3.06 FINISH GRADING 最后修整
A. General: Uniformly grade all areas within the limits of grading under this section, including adjacent transition areas. Smooth the finished surfaces within the specified tolerances, compact and provide uniform levels or slopes between points where elevations are shown, or between such points and existing grades.
B. Compaction: After grading, compact subgrade surfaces to the depth and required percentage of maximum density.
3.07 ANTI-TERMITE TREATMENT: 白蚁防治
A. The Contractor/Specialised Sub-contractor shall follow the principle of creating a toxic barrier within the soil beneath and around the buildings, through which termites cannot pass. All internal and external backfill shall be treated prior to casting ground slabs.
B. Particular emphasis shall be given to site cleanliness during the works and the Contractor is to ensure that no timber cardboard or other cellulose containing materials discharged during the work are left in or on the ground on completion of the project.
C. The contractor shall ensure that the treated areas shall not be disturbed by relevelling, digging or earth filling once the treatment is completed as this will diturb the chemical barrier. In case the treated areas are disturbed (in any way), the area shall be retreated to restore the chemical barrier at the Contrator’s expense.
3.08 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL 场地质量控制
A. Quality Control Testing During Construction: 施工过程中的质量控制测试
1. Inspect and perform all testing and retesting to ensure that all the works conform to the specified requirements including evenness of surface tests and field density tests.
2. Inspect and ensure that all subgrade and fill layers conform to the specified requirements and obtain Engineer approval before further construction is performed thereon.
3. Perform field density tests, in accordance with BS 1377
4. Trenches: 地沟
a. Make at selected locations at least one field density test of subgrade for every 200m2 area, but in no case less than three (3) tests per days operation.
b. In each compacted backfill or fill layer make at selected locations at least one field density test for every 200m2 area but in no case less than three (3) tests per day's operation.
5. Walkways: Make at selected locations at least one field density test of subgrade or finish grade for every 500m2 area, but in no case less than three (3) tests per day's operation. In each compacted fill layer make at selected location at least one (1) field density test for every 500 m2 area, but in no case less than three (3) tests per day's operation.
6. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, based on reports and inspection, the subgrade or fills which have been placed are below the specified density, provide additional compaction and testing until satisfactory results are obtained.
B. Contractor’s Control of Anti-Termite Treatment Works:
1. The Contractor shall control the works of the anti-termite treatment specialized contractor and make sure that the Sub-contractor conducts the treatment works in accordance with the method statement submitted and approved by the Engineer.
2. Following completion works, the Contractor shall submit a counter-guarantee, in addition to that submitted by the specialized anti-termite treatment Sub-contractor, stating that the works have been carried out in accordance with the drawings and specifications and that the said structure shall be guaranteed free from termite infestation for a minimum period of 10 (ten) years from the issue of the completion certificate.
3.09 TOLERANCES 偏差
A. Shape the surface of the areas under pavement, parking areas, walkways and shoulders to line, grade and cross-section with the finish surface not more than 20 mm above or below the required subgrade elevation, compacted as specified, and graded to prevent ponding of water after rains.
3.10 MAINTENANCE 成品维护
A. Protection of subgrade: Protect subgrade from traffic and erosion, and keep free of trash and debris. Repair and re-establish grades in settled, eroded and rutted areas to the specified tolerances.
B. Reconditioning Compacted Areas: Where completed compacted areas are disturbed by subsequent construction operations or adverse weather, scarify the surface, reshape, and compact to the required density and re-test to ensure compliance with the specified requirements, prior to further construction.
3.11 DISPOSAL OF EXCESS AND WASTE MATERIALS 处理多余的土和废料
A. Dispose of excess and waste material to approved dumping areas as directed.